LaboraTORiAH was a new-mysterial art project, the most important goal of which was to explore sacred Hebrew texts by means of theatre. Boris Yukhananov and Grigory Zeltser initiated the project in 2002 and developed it for over a decade in various spaces and formats. Participants of LaboraTORiAH were challenged with a large range of tasks, among which were the interpretation of the Torah and other Hebrew texts by theatrical means, and the formulation and development of a theatrical method under the influence of a “Jewish” manner of writing, thinking and living. Throughout the years of the project’s existence, a unique interdisciplinary artistic community emerged within the project, a whole series of books were published, and several video films were made. One of those publications was LaboraROTiAH. Golem. A Book of Reflections. It included all internet and media reviews about the performance, as well as all seven parts of the performance script, a "play that wrote itself.".

2002. Text. Direction. Performance

The project began its development with weekly meetings within the walls of the Jewish Cultural Center on Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street. The impetus for the creation of the project was the desire to develop a theatrical method that would be adequate for engaging the Torah and the Tanakh. Western European theatre has its roots in antiquity; it boasts specific manners of dramatic construction and of an actor’s onstage presence stage. Sacred Jewish texts and Jewish philosophy are based on completely different principles. The creators of the LaboraTORiAH project made the assumption that an actor’s open and a priori unburdened vision of the Hebrew texts would lead to the creation of a new type of theatre.

As such, LaboraTORiAH began as a study. The meetings at the Jewish Cultural Center on Bolshaya Nikitskaya were open to interested participants of any nationality, religion and professional orientation.

Processualism in LaboraTORiAH

Most likely any outsider unfamiliar with the theory of new-processual art considered his or her first encounter with LaboraTORiAH and Boris Yukhananov a provocation. Accustomed to clearly formatted types of interaction (rehearsal, seminar, training, conversation, etc.), the participants, perhaps for the first time ever, found themselves facing a project that lacked distinct form and perspective, as well as clearly established rules for behavior and “the playing of the game.” Rules in LaboraTORiAH, as in other projects developed by Boris Yukhananov, came into being gradually, underwent modification, and were the consequence and continuation of the artistic development of the project, its images and meanings.

Only the two aspects reflected in the name – LaboraTORiAH – remained unchanged. I.e., “the work of the Torah,” in which “work” was essentially understood to mean “theatre.” Participants freely selected excerpts from the Torah and prepared theatrical scenes based on these passages. Performances were held once a week and were accompanied by discussions that went beyond narrowly crafted or even purely theatrical analysis. Discussions at the meetings concerned a variety of topics related to the Torah, the Tanakh, Judaism and the places where ancient texts and ancient consciousness intersect with contemporary art, contemporary culture, and the life of the contemporary individual.

At the same time, one did not have to be a theatre-maker in order to participate in LaboraTORiAH. The project stood on what was called "three circles." Participants in the First Circle worked on theatrical passages and assumed certain obligations to develop the artistic part of the project. The Second Circle consisted of all those who regularly took part in LaboraTORiAH’s discussions and activities, attended the shows as a spectator, but did not prepare the activities. The Third Circle was a completely open space in which anyone could come in to watch the process. Belonging to one or another circle, however, did not presuppose any restrictions – anyone attending a meeting was considered a full participant. 

This kind of freedom made LaboraTORiAH accessible to a very diverse group of people. Someone interested in Jewish philosophy, for example, might, through LaboraTORiAH, engage someone educated in the traditions of Russian theatre, or someone whose path of development lay in the territory of contemporary art. The Torah and other sacred Hebrew texts became a means of communication for individuals of the most diverse consciousnesses and approaches, and laid the groundwork for the birth of an artistic community.


When working on theatrical scenes, participants were absolutely free to choose the artistic method, style and even understanding of what theater is. After several months of the project's existence, they formulated a technique for working with sacred texts and called it "text-gesture."

The essence of this technique was an attempt to read the text of the Torah by means of the body through sound and combinations of sounds, while bypassing the interpretive impulses of consciousness. This approach is rooted in the Jewish tradition of interpreting the Torah, wherein, on one level, one perceives words and sentences not by their semantic properties, but rather by seeking deep meanings encoded in words and letters. "Text-gesture" emerged as the only stage technique that was employed by all participants of the project.

In other respects, the further the project developed, the more the participants increased the variety of forms and approaches to their work on the Torah and the Tanakh. As it evolved, this variety corresponded directly to the research project’s topic.

Philosophy Seminar and Theatrical Midrash

In keeping with LaboraTORiAH’s mission, participants were required to immerse themselves in the world of Jewish philosophy, and in the analysis of Jewish sacred texts. As such, one aspect of the group's activities was the Philosophical Seminar, where rabbis and specialists in the field of academic Judaica took part at various stages. While still in the early stages of its development, LaboraTORiAH received the blessing of Rabbi Meir Schlesinger, who subsequently was a regular participant in the group’s philosophical discussions.

The starting point for the philosophical seminar was the question: "Why do Jews need theatre if they have the Torah?" A year before LaboraTORiAH began, Anatoly Vasilyev rhetorically asked this question of Grigory Zeltser. As a result, for Boris Yukhananov and other participants of LaboraTORiAH, this question became the topic of practical, philosophical and artistic research into a new type of theatre built on the Jewish tradition.

In the Jewish way of life, where nearly every moment of existence is subject to one of the 613 commandments of the Torah and thousands of their Talmudic interpretations, is not the existence of humankind a game, a piece of theatre? And who, then, is the spectator of this game? Who is the author and director? The Creator who creates its rules? According to Exodus, the Creator, through Moses, gave the Torah to the Jews - a book that simultaneously describes both the narrative of Jewish and world history, and the law by which Jews should live. Does this mean that the Creator is the absolute and only author in a theatre that can be considered Jewish?   

In fact, unlike many other religious systems, Judaism lacks a single dogmatic system of interpreting a sacred text. The Talmud, second only to the Tanakh among sacred Jewish books, is an intertextual collection of often contradictory interpretations of the Torah and its laws. A distinguishing feature of classical European texts - both dramatic and philosophical - is that a composition aspires to a finale. In this finale we discover an answer of some kind, a conclusion that is connected with the theme of the work. Jewish texts are arranged in the opposite way. Their main technique is that of escape, of avoiding a single utterance. This makes the texts of the Talmud and Torah, written thousands of years ago, kit and kin to the postmodern literary and philosophical experiments of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

The thinking of an individual participating in a Talmudic discussion is very close to the playful thinking of a modern intellectual. The only difference is that the Talmudist, in his reflections, seeks to engage the Creator as a certain locus of truth, and the source of our existence. But the Creator is fundamentally unknowable and infinite. All we can know about Him is encrypted in His text - the Torah. Therefore, our attempts to know Him are expressed precisely in the constant generation of new interpretations of this text. Throughout the centuries, Jewish sages have allowed themselves to compose stories that, as it were, supplement the Torah and reveal "hitherto unknown" aspects of the events described in it. These stories were called "Midrash," and their meaning might be instructive, absurd or even obscene.

Discussion of these topics within the framework of the Philosophical Seminar allowed anyone to see participants’ artistic work for LaboraTORiAH as an extension of the age-old Jewish tradition of Midrash, in this case, using theatrical means.

"For, when we meditate with the help of a beth-midrash, when we respond to the Sacred text, we seek in this reflection, and in a real response, to embrace all of its properties, but we do not seek to devalue it. When we respond with commentary, even if it is a nuance, at this moment we create nuances in relation to the Sacred text, and we know that these are nuances. One cannot embrace the unembraceable, but one can meet, and aspire to a meeting with fullness; this is the whole paradox of the Creator, who then appears inside of us." (Fragment of the play, LaboraTORiAH. Golem).

Golem and Dybbuk

The founders of LaboraTORiAH were not the only artists in history who sought to unite theatre and the semantic sources of Judaism. Alongside the LaboraTORiAH project, Grigory Zeltser worked on the Jewish Book Houses publishing project, and the Joint – Half a Century of Jewish Theatre distribution group. For this project, Boris Entin edited a collection of plays that had never been translated into Russian from Yiddish. It included H. Leivick’s Golem and S. Ansky’s Dybbuk.

Both of these plays were not only based on world-famous Jewish legends, but in their structure and meanings were related to the Torah, the Tanakh, and various themes relevant to Jewish consciousness. As such, along with the sacred texts, they were offered to LaboraTORiAH participants for the creation of theatrical works.

The Diasporic Symphony and Heavenly Jerusalem

Images and meanings connected with the concept of "Diaspora" were included in the work along with other new materials. From the very beginning, the Diaspora in the Jewish tradition has meant the dispersion of Jews around the world following the destruction of the Third Temple. One usually speaks in this context about the loss of the Shekhinah – the dwelling place of the Creator on earth. The Shepherd's house was once a Temple, but now there is no Temple; God's presence has dissolved into the world and dissipated among the people. Everything that is created by people from the moment of dispersion bears the imprint of dissolution in the world, the imprint of the Diaspora.

The concept of "Diaspora" acquired a wider metaphorical meaning in the work of LaboraTORiAH. You may experience the signs of the "diasporic" in the existence of any urban dweller, in the chaotic world of the beginning of the second millennium, in art in general and in theatre, especially. The "diasporic" is sensed as a loss, as isolation from the source and, at the same time, as an openness, a readiness to perceive a multitude of influences and to develop them, seeing a reflection of this very source in any manifestation of life. The "diasporic" began to be used as a characteristic of LaboraTORiAH’s artistic style, wherein the variety of forms and utterances was combined with the unity of the intentions of the participants.

The first public display of the LaboraTORiAH project took place in the summer of 2005 at the Jewish Cultural Center on Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street in Moscow. Presented to a narrow circle of spectators, the work was called The Diasporic Symphony, and it consisted of scenes based on fragments of the Torah and the Tanakh, as well as on the plays Golem and Dybbuk. Each scene was a complete, "rehearsed" work, however The Diasporic Symphony as a whole came together only during the actual performance. Boris Yukhananov took on the role of a "conductor," who on the spot determined the order of the appearance of scenes on stage. Completely different passages were often performed simultaneously and were forced to enter into dialogue with each other without losing their own structure and form.  

By means of this structure, a second image appeared in the performance, along with the metaphor of the "Diaspora" – that of Heavenly Jerusalem. This was an image of the coming world, in which various creatures, phenomena, concepts, artistic styles and personalities would coexist peacefully according to the laws of the Torah. The space of theatre emerged as a territory in which anyone from the Diaspora could enter into a relationship with Heavenly Jerusalem and feel its presence in dialogue and coexistence on stage. How does the Diaspora see Heavenly Jerusalem? Does it reveal to us its beauty, or does our consciousness perceive it as something horrible, frightening, and disgusting that brings ruin upon the familiar "diasporic" order of things?

International Seminars and the LaboraTORiAH Movement

The mission of LaboraTORiAH always presupposed a dialogue with the Jewish world and Jewish culture. One of the consequences of the project was the development of approaches to theatre, which, on one hand, were rooted in sacred Jewish texts, and on the other, were not connected with the usual cultural traditions, i.e., were directed toward the future. LaboraTORiAH decided to expand its circle of participants in 2004 and invited Jewish theatres from all over the world to join in dialogue. Thus arose the International LaboraTORiAH Movement. Between 2004 and 2006, two international seminars were held in Moscow. Theatres and theatre makers from Israel, Austria, Poland, Great Britain and the U.S., as well as Rabbis Meir Schlesinger, Mordechai Vardi, Seymour Epstein, Menachem Froman, and Adin Steinsaltz, took part in the festival. The first seminar was devoted to the question "Why do Jews have theatre if they have the Torah?" The topic of the second was a very important one for Jewish consciousness, “The Mystery of the Brain and the Mystery of the Heart," which led to a dialogue about the rational tradition and mystical practices of Judaism. The third seminar was devoted to the theme "Faith and Art."

A quote from Rabbi Meir Schlesinger: “Is art an alternative to faith? Or does it feed faith? Or does it enrich the world of faith? Or are all our assumptions wrong, and do faith and art have neither a common source, nor a common goal? Are faith and art moving in one direction or in opposite directions? Or is their movement not connected in any way? Art serves the expression of the depths of the soul of humankind, while religion concerns the essence of each individual person. If so, then religion is still the main source of art, and sacred texts pave the way for its development. Perhaps with the help of art that grows out of faith, faith itself will find the opportunity for deeper and holistic self-expression.”

The seminars emerged from the LaboraTORiAH format, with rehearsals and theatre performances tying into philosophical discussions involving the participation of rabbis. For foreign participants of the movement, the seminars were the first experience of interacting with representatives of "official" Judaism in the territory of theatre. One of the results was the blurring of the line between philosophical discussion and performance, between spectator and participant, and even between prayer and performance.

LaboraTORiAH at the School of Dramatic Art on Povarskaya Street

LaboraTORiAH began its transition into an actual theatre project in the autumn of 2006. Boris Yukhananov is a former student of Anatoly Vasiliev. His method of a "new-mysterial theatre" had always existed in dialogue with the Vasilyev theatre school. In October 2005, the LaboraTORiAH project continued to unfold at Vasilyev’s School of Dramatic Art, in the Studio on Povarskaya Street. Within the walls of the Studio, the group began working on a future performance by means of intensive rehearsals. Moreover, the principle of the Three Circles survived, so that, aside from those who were engaged in rehearsals, individuals with interests in other aspects of the project were involved as well. Some filmed or photographed the process, some merely observed the experiment in the theatre space, while still others might engage in dialogue with rabbis on the themes of art and creativity. 

The activities of the project participants at this time took place on three levels – the creative level, which involved rehearsals and work on the play; the process of creative exploration, which involved organizing the processes necessary for the development of the project; and the process of execution where participants applied the meanings and images associated with the project’s theme to their own lives. By the beginning of 2005, most participants were drawing these meanings from H. Leivick’s play, Golem.

LaboraTORiAH. Golem

H. Leivick’s play Golem was chosen as the central text for the participants of LaboraTORiAH because its topic was closely connected to the processes unfolding in the artistic commune. The play is based on the well-known legend of a clay creature created by a famous Jewish rabbi and Kabbalist to protect his community from enemies. Different versions of the legend put forth different names for the creator of the Golem, but Leivick’s posits the main hero as the Prague Rabbi Maharal. Jewish tradition knows two main interpretations of the legend of the Golem. One explores the idea of how the creation turned against its creator - in the finale of that legend Maharal is forced to destroy the Golem, returning it to its former lifeless state. However, it was another aspect of the legend that was most relevant for LaboraTORiAH:

"There is another strategy for working with legends – that is, raising it to the level of myth... With its Golem project, LaboraTORiAH took precisely this path. If you try immediately, under duress... to pinpoint this approach’s thematic stream, then one may resort as an initial outline to the following formulation: ‘true creativity as man’s creation of himself in collaboration with the Creator, in an attempt to assimilate the Creator.’ In this case, the Golem as blank, unformed material (this is the meaning of the original Hebrew word), is simultaneously a person in his embryonic state from the perspective of creative maturity, and (if we take into account theatre’s collective nature) the emerging community is a kind of creative organism, with the result of the creative act being the performance itself." (Uri Gershovich, from his article “The Seven Days of Creating Golem, or, the Torah of LaboraTORiAH").

The relationship between the Creator and Creation occupies a significant place in H. Leivick’s play. It is filled with the modernist anticipation of the regeneration of the world (the action takes place ostensibly in Prague), and of such characters as the Mashiah-Messiah, whose arrival in the Jewish tradition means the end of the world and the advent of Heavenly Jerusalem. In his play, Leivick equates the story of the creation of the Golem to the story of the relationship between the Supreme Being and the Universe. For LaboraTORiAH, the Golem text was the ideal material for researching such topics. The territory of the study emerged as the relationship between the Creator and Creation in a theatre space

LaboraTORiAH. Golem. The Vienna Rehearsal

In the spring of 2007, Warren Rosenzweig, a participant of the International LaboraTORiAH movement, hosted the Tikkun Olam festival of Jewish theatres in Vienna. The Moscow LaboraTORiAH was invited to take part. On March 18 and 19 performances of a piece called LaboraTORiAH. Golem. Open Process were held at one of the festival venues.

The basis for the performance was the work that participants in the Moscow LaboraTORiAH were doing with the Torah, the Tanakh and H. Leivick’s Golem. In this work various participants alternately played the role of Golem, his creator Maharal and other of the play’s protagonists. The performance assumed a structure open to improvisation and acquired its final form only in the process of performance in Vienna.

The central aspect of the performance were the improvisational "interventions" of a new character – the Megamaharal - whose role was assumed by Boris Yukhananov. Heuristic in nature, and resembling stand-up comedy in form, these interventions covered a broad thematic field. At the same time, the focal point of the action was the very act of creativity, the coming-into-being, the desperate attempt to be like the Creator while remaining free within the territory of theatre, an art form which, in the 20th century, had gained the reputation of being nearly the most totalitarian of all. It is in connection with this topic that one of the key metaphors in the "interventions" was the Exodus, a story told in the Torah about the movement of Jews from a slavish state in Egypt to a free state in a desert that was devoid of reference points.  

Megamagaral: Where am I? I occupy territory in that world-wide dictatorship called directing. I am, in essence, a Pharaoh. I am Paro. It matters not whether I say something intelligent or stupid, for I am the figure of the maker of this spectacle, this one and only ruler of the soul, this ruler of artistic life in the theatre, this totalitarian ruler of our dreams... The boss, the pharaoh, the conductor, the trainer, the driver, the pilot, the coach – all of these totalitarian professions have multiplied all over the world. Meanwhile we keep thinking that we’re dealing with social or political matters... It seems a Pharaoh can arise even in the technology of performance. Pharaoh. A little Pharoah. Clip-snip. Clip-snip. So as not to curdle, Jews must do this little clip-snip according to the commandments. (Grabs himself by the trousers in the necessary place.) (Fragment of the play LaboraTORiAH. Golem).

Spectators looked on as the relationship unfolded between Megamagaral and the LaboraTORiAH participants, for whom his interventions into the action were something of a terrorist attack on the work they were doing . These experiences - living, and real - were also an artistic expression of the relationship between the Creator and the Creation.

The performance ended in an open discussion involving the audience. Most were amazed by the form of the spectacle that they had seen, and by its theme, the very mission of LaboraTORiAH. During the discussion, Boris Yukhananov continued to develop his character – Megamaharala – constantly transporting what was transpiring into the territory of artful performance, and constantly engaging all participants in dialogue.

LaboraTORiAH. Golem – The Play

The so-called "Viennese rehearsal" could have remained a one-off performance, but the artistic strategy of LaboraTORiAH dictated another outcome. After returning from Vienna, the participants set to work deciphering the video recordings of The Vienna Rehearsal. By the end of June 2007, they had at hand a new play called LaboraTORiAH. Golem.

The play was the full text of the transcription of events that took place in Vienna, including excerpts of dramatic works; the "intervention" of Megamaharal; commentary from spectators; and even occasional, tossed-off phrases. This method of creating the play text was an expression of an entirely innovative approach to the dramaturgical process. Unlike experiments with verbatim, which presuppose the recording and transcription of events from real life, and then their transformation into dramaturgical material, this was a matter of consciously producing a dramatic text in the very course of an onstage performance – that is, a "performance that writes the play for itself".

This method of creating dramatic material grew directly out of the central theme of the LaboraTORiAH project. The primary sacred text of the Jewish tradition - the Torah – also describes a certain story – the history of the Jewish people. At the same time, from the standpoint of Judaism, the text itself is more important than the history, and history itself is only required in order to bring forth the Torah. LaboraTORiAH managed to recreate and explore similar relationships between reality and text.

Moreover, the method of creating the play reflected themes involving the relationship between the Creator and Creation. Each participant of the performance and each of its spectators became a creator of the play text; that is, became a Creator. At the same time, the play did not have a single author, it was based on real events. Therefore, in a sense, it could be said that its true author was the Creator in the direct, biblical sense of the word.

LaboraTORiAH. Golem – The Theatre Serial

In the spring of 2007, LaboraTORiAH’s work continued on the premises of the School of Dramatic Art on Sretenka Street. The artistic group began rehearsing a performance based on the play LaboraTORiAH. Golem

The first three parts of the play were drawn from events that took place in Vienna. However, having been transformed into the text of a play, these events, in a sense, were liberated from their true source. The distribution of roles in the performance did not always coincide with the actual situation in Vienna. The role of Megamaharal, played by Boris Yukhananov during the performance in Vienna, was turned over to the young director and actor Nikolai Karakash. The simultaneous English translation of all that transpired on stage was also included in the performance. In Vienna, the translation was a technical necessity, but in the performance it was a part of the overall conception. It reflected a plurality of meanings and the impossibility of direct communication. The participants's performance remained improvisational, but by the time of the premiere, two days of the play had acquired several forms, including acrobatic rock'n'roll, which on stage was a physical reference to playful dialogue.

As such, the real events of Vienna were transformed into fictional dramatic material while remaining a reality for the participants in the process. For each of them, participation in the performance was not merely an artistic, but also a personal experience of translating one's own life into an artistic zone.

"Therefore, I say again, proceeding from those truths that overtook me in that very smoking room where I began, that is, in that part of my soul that I call a smoking room ... I say, proceeding from these truths, we are a community that resolved to make a special kind of offering to contemporary art - a special kind of performance drawn from one's own life. But this is by no means our life, it is the performance of our project. We have a project that comprises a new-mysterial process. It has been under development for over seven years, and just today I realized that we are now applying performance to it. We are seeking to make an installation of it in the form of a special kind of ‘processual’ performance.” (Fragment of LaboraTORiAH. Golem.)

Rehearsals raised a number of new questions for the LaboraTORiAH participants. The methodology of work on the project always reflected the project’s ideology. Therefore, the artistic strategy of the project could not be expected to bring about a traditional "production" based on a single dramatic analysis made by the authoritarian figure of the director. Although several members of the LaboraTORiAH artistic community were theatre artists of one kind or another, Golem was always a research project of a larger community. Most participants had no acting or directing experience. Rehearsals of the play were conducted with a conscious refusal to apply a single theatrical method to the material. Thus, the very need to conduct a collective dialogue in order to create a performance became a method in itself.

As such, the work of LaboraTORiAH also became an investigation of theatre’s timeless nature, liberated from modern methodological formats.

In the fall of 2007, LaboraTORiAH. Golem premiered in the Tau Hall of the School of Dramatic Art. The onstage performance, as well as the group that played it, emerged in some ways as a "golem" – a creation unknown to itself, yet experiencing the process of its own formation. This allowed for entirely new ways of doing research on the topic at hand.

Text by Yelena Lyubarskaya.

[This is a translation-in-progress. Eleven more segments will appear in this space soon.]